Multimessenger Yahoo (logare cu mai multe ID simultan )

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In cazul in care aveti mai multe ID de Yahoo Messenger si doriti sa va logati cu ele simultan folosind Yahoo Messenger exista o solutie atat de simpla si utila.

1. intram in start facem click pe iconita run.. iar in acea casuta vom scrie comanda regedit

2. vom naviga spre HKEY_CURRENT_USER / Software / Yahoo / pager / Test si vom creea o noua valoare DWORD pe care o vom denumi Plural

3. dupa ce am demumit valoarea DWORD cu Plural e timpul sa modificam si valoarea acestuia ,vom da click dreapta pe plural si vom modifica Value data cu valoarea 1 in loc de valoarea 0

4.vom inchide editorul regedit si  va puteti bucura de Yahoo Multimessenger

5.daca din diverse motive nu mai dorim ca aceasta functiie de deschidere multipla a aplicatiei Yahoo Messenger vom parcurge toti pasii si vom modifica Value data cu valoarea 0

Recuperarea datelor sterse de pe HDD NTFS-FAT Recover lost data from HDD NTFS-FAT

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Se intampla uneori din greseala sa stergeti unele fisiere de care mai tarziu veti avea nevoie de ele sau sa le stergeti din greseala,in acest caz nu disperati, exista o solutie si anume un programel care specializat in recuperarea fisierelor sterse accidental precum si recuperarii datelor de pe un flash usb,card,hardisk extern,hardisk cu MRB sters sau corupt!

Programul este in FAT cat si NTFS si se gaseste sub denumirea     GetDataBack       Click pentru a descarca programul


Utilizarea ICS (Internet Connection Sharing – Partajarea conexiunii la Internet)

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Utilizarea ICS (Internet Connection Sharing – Partajarea conexiunii la Internet)

  

Dacă doriți să partajați o singură conexiune Internet între mai multe computere, aveți două posibilități: *

Utilizați Partajarea conexiunii la Internet (ICS – Internet Connection Sharing). * Utilizați un ruter. Pentru informații despre utilizarea unui ruter, consultați Configurarea unei rețele de domiciliu.

Cum funcționează ICS?

Mai întâi, trebuie să aveți un computer, denumit computer gazdă, care este conectat la Internet și are o conexiune separată cu celelalte computere din rețea. Activați ICS pentru conexiunea la Internet.

Celelalte computere din rețea se vor conecta apoi la computerul gazdă, iar de aici, la Internet, prin conexiunea Internet partajată a computerului gazdă. Ilustrație a unei rețele care utilizează Partajarea conexiunii la Internet (ICS)Rețea care utilizează Partajarea conexiunii la Internet (ICS) Începutul paginii Activarea ICS Pentru a activa ICS pe computerul gazdă: 1. Deschideți Conexiuni în rețea făcând clic pe butonul StartImagine a butonului Start, pe Panou de control, pe Rețea și Internet, pe Centru de rețea și partajare, apoi pe Gestionare conexiuni rețea.

2.Faceți clic cu butonul din dreapta pe conexiunea pe care doriți să o partajați, apoi faceți clic pe Proprietăți. Permisiune de administrator necesară Dacă vi se solicită o parolă de administrator sau o confirmare, tastați parola sau furnizați confirmarea.

3. Faceți clic pe fila Partajare, apoi bifați caseta de selectare Se permite altor utilizatori din rețea să se conecteze prin intermediul conexiunii la Internet a acestui computer. Notă Notă Fila Partajare nu va fi disponibilă dacă aveți o singură conexiune de rețea.

4. Dacă doriți, bifați și caseta de selectare Se permite altor utilizatori ai rețelei să controleze sau să dezactiveze conexiunea partajată la Internet.

5. Opțional, pentru a le permite altor utilizatori ai rețelei să utilizeze serviciile care se execută în rețea, faceți clic pe Setări și selectați serviciile care doriți să fie permise. Când activați ICS, conexiunea LAN (rețea locală) obține o adresă IP statică și o configurație noi, așa că va fi necesar să restabiliți toate conexiunile TCP/IP dintre computerul gazdă și celelalte computere din rețea. Pentru a testa rețeaua și conexiunea la Internet, verificați dacă reușiți să partajați fișiere între computere și asigurați-vă că fiecare computer reușește să acceseze un site Web. Începutul paginii Configurarea TCP/IP Pentru a utiliza ICS, conexiunea LAN (rețea locală) de pe fiecare computer din rețea trebuie să fie configurată pentru a obține automat o adresă IP. Pentru aceasta:

1. Deschideți Conexiuni în rețea făcând clic pe butonul StartImagine a butonului Start, pe Panou de control, pe Rețea și Internet, pe Centru de rețea și partajare, apoi pe Gestionare conexiuni rețea.

2. Faceți clic cu butonul din dreapta pe conexiunea LAN, apoi faceți clic pe Proprietăți. Permisiune de administrator necesară Dacă vi se solicită o parolă de administrator sau o confirmare, tastați parola sau furnizați confirmarea.

3. Faceți clic pe Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) sau pe Internet Protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6), apoi faceți clic pe Proprietăți.

4. Faceți clic pe Se obține automat o adresă IP sau pe Se obține automat o adresă IPv6. Opțiunile Internet de pe computerele din rețea trebuie să fie și ele configurate pentru ICS. Pentru mai multe informații, consultați Modificarea setărilor Internet pentru ICS (Internet Connection Sharing – Partajarea conexiunii la Internet). Nu utilizați ICS într-o rețea cu controlere de domeniu, servere DNS, gateway-uri sau servere DHCP. De asemenea, nu utilizați ICS pe sisteme configurate pentru adrese IP statice. Începutul paginii Conexiuni ICS și VPN În cazul în care creați o conexiune VPN (rețea virtuală privată) pe computerul gazdă către o rețea de organizație, apoi activați ICS pentru conexiunea respectivă, întreg traficul Internet este rutat către rețeaua organizației și toate computerele din rețeaua de domiciliu vor accesa rețeaua organizației. Dacă nu activați ICS pentru conexiunea VPN, celelalte computere nu vor avea acces la Internet sau la rețeaua corporativă în timp ce conexiunea VPN este activă pe computerul gazdă. Începutul paginii ICS și rețelele ad-hoc Dacă partajați o conexiune la Internet într-o rețea ad-hoc, ICS se va dezactiva dacă: * Vă deconectați de la rețeaua ad-hoc. * Creați o nouă rețea ad-hoc fără a vă deconecta de la rețeaua ad-hoc pentru care ați activat ICS. * Faceți Log off, apoi Log on (fără a vă deconecta de la rețeaua ad-hoc).

Missing sccbase.dll – slbcsp.dll files for HP printer install

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The fix

In Reply to: missing sccbase.dll/slbcsp.dll files for hp printer install

Okay this is not a hard problem to fix. Before I give you the instructions I want to make it CLEAR that I do not condone cracked/exploited copied of Windows or any other Microsoft product, neither does CNET so you should probably keep that to yourself from now on.

Instructions:

Firstly, delete all the copies of the dll you obtained from everywhere. There should only be one copy of each in the C:WINDOWSsystem32 folder.

Then you need to become familiar with regedit. Its a pretty easy utility to learn, but don’t mess around with stuff you could really mess stuff up. To start it up, go to the start menu, click run…, and type in regedit. We are a quarter of the way to fixing this now. Stay strong!

To get this to work you are going to need those two subkeys in your registry:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWAREMicrosoftCryptographyDefaultsProviderSchlumberger
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESOFTWAREMicrosoftCryptographyDefaultsProviderInfineon

You can get to these paths through regedit. The two subkeys (keys are the things that look like folders in regedit): „Schlumberger Cryptographic Service Provider” and „Infineon SICRYPT Base Smart Card CSP” need to be created in the Provider key. In order to do this click on the Provider key and in the Edit menu click on new… then key in the submenu. Do this twice and rename the created keys:

Schlumberger Cryptographic Service Provider
Infineon SICRYPT Base Smart Card CSP

[Halfway there now!]

Okay, lets get crazy and add some info to these keys. Click on the keys you created. You should have one value in the window to the right . It should be named (default) and it should have (value not set). This is fantastic. Right click in the window to the right with the default value. In the new menu, click on string value. A new string value will be created you need to rename this value „Image Path” then right click it, and select „modify”. Set the value to C:WINDOWSsystem32slbcsp.dll for Schlumberger and C:WINDOWSsystem32sccbase.dll for Infineon.
[3/4 of the way done]

Two both of the created subkeys add two DWORD values the same way you added the string values. These values should be named „SigInFile” and „Type”. Simply modify the Type one to have a value of one (hexidecimal or decimal … it doesn’t matter numbers 1 – 9 are the same in both bases). Done!

That should do it for your pirated copy of windows, which is probably a crippled copy of windows used for corporations with lots of workstations that doesn’t require a key. If you are going to pirate OS software you NEED to learn your intermediate computer skills like regedit and batch commands etc… Don’t be lazy and expect everything to work for free and then complain about some customer service not getting back to you in a timely manner. And don’t post anything else here except thank you cause I just fixed your problem for FREE on my own time. Good luck.

PING TEST (TEST DE CONEXIUNE)

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Cu  ajutorul comenzii de ping puteti vedea daca aveti conectivitate cu un server si daca conexiunea dvs fumctioneaza in parametri normali inclusiv daca pachetele pe care le trimiteti le receptionati inapoi totale sau partiale si durata de raspuns in care serverul sau hostul in care da-ti ping va raspunde,foarte utila cand doriti sa verificati conectivitatea cu  un server .

Mai jos in video aveti un exemlu de test pe adresa http://www.google.ro comanda va rezolva si adresa ip

Start – Run – Cmd apoi ping x.x.x.x.x (x.x.x.x.x inseamna o adresa ip un host un dns o adresa web)

ping x.x.x.x.x -t    comada (-t) va face testul pama ce il veti opri prin comanda (crtl+c)

ping x.x.x.x.x -t -l 100  comada (-l) de refera la lungime iar unitatea de masura este in biti bytes  in exeplu se va da ping cu 100biti

De retinut daca va apare un mesaj request timed out inseamna ca calculatorul dvs nu comunica cu acel server sau adresa ip sau este blocat pentru ping, timpul de raspuns la ping poate varia din mai multe cauze si motive  unul dintre ele ar fi suparglomerarea retelei sau echipamente prost configurare sau de proasta calitate

CONEXIUNE AUTOMATA RDS PPPoE

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Aici va estre prezentat cum se poate face o conexiune care se lanseaza automat cu deschidera calculatorului .In vindeo de mai jos aveti un exeplu de conexiune PPP0E  RDS, practic la deschiderea calculatorului dvs nu va mai fi necesar sa da-ti CONECT  la conexiune deoarece ea se va lansa singura:

Simboluri folosite in circuite Electronice – Circuit Symbols used in Elecronics

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Wires and connections

 Component   Circuit Symbol  Function of Component
Wire wire symbol To pass current very easily from one part of a circuit to another.
Wires joined wires joined symbol A ‘blob’ should be drawn where wires are connected (joined), but it is sometimes omitted. Wires connected at ‘crossroads’ should be staggered slightly to form two T-junctions, as shown on the right.
Wires not joined wires crossing but not joined symbol In complex diagrams it is often necessary to draw wires crossing even though they are not connected. I prefer the ‘bridge’ symbol shown on the right because the simple crossing on the left may be misread as a join where you have forgotten to add a ‘blob’!

Power Supplies

 Component   Circuit Symbol  Function of Component
Cell cell symbol Supplies electrical energy.
The larger terminal (on the left) is positive (+).
A single cell is often called a battery, but strictly a battery is two or more cells joined together.
Battery battery symbol Supplies electrical energy. A battery is more than one cell.
The larger terminal (on the left) is positive (+).
DC supply DC power supply symbol Supplies electrical energy.
DC = Direct Current, always flowing in one direction.
AC supply AC power supply symbol Supplies electrical energy.
AC = Alternating Current, continually changing direction.
Fuse fuse symbol A safety device which will ‘blow’ (melt) if the current flowing through it exceeds a specified value.
Transformer transformer symbol Two coils of wire linked by an iron core. Transformers are used to step up (increase) and step down (decrease) AC voltages. Energy is transferred between the coils by the magnetic field in the core. There is no electrical connection between the coils.
Earth
(Ground)
earth symbol A connection to earth. For many electronic circuits this is the 0V (zero volts) of the power supply, but for mains electricity and some radio circuits it really means the earth. It is also known as ground.

Output Devices: Lamps, Heater, Motor, etc.

 Component   Circuit Symbol  Function of Component
Lamp (lighting) lamp (lighting) symbol A transducer which converts electrical energy to light. This symbol is used for a lamp providing illumination, for example a car headlamp or torch bulb.
Lamp (indicator) lamp (indicator) symbol A transducer which converts electrical energy to light. This symbol is used for a lamp which is an indicator, for example a warning light on a car dashboard.
Heater heater symbol A transducer which converts electrical energy to heat.
Motor motor symbol A transducer which converts electrical energy to kinetic energy (motion).
Bell bell symbol A transducer which converts electrical energy to sound.
Buzzer buzzer symbol A transducer which converts electrical energy to sound.
Inductor
(Coil, Solenoid)
inductor symbol A coil of wire which creates a magnetic field when current passes through it. It may have an iron core inside the coil. It can be used as a transducer converting electrical energy to mechanical energy by pulling on something.

Switches

 Component   Circuit Symbol  Function of Component
Push Switch
(push-to-make)
push-to-make switch symbol A push switch allows current to flow only when the button is pressed. This is the switch used to operate a doorbell.
Push-to-Break Switch push-to-break switch symbol This type of push switch is normally closed (on), it is open (off) only when the button is pressed.
On-Off Switch
(SPST)
SPST on-off switch symbol SPST = Single Pole, Single Throw.
An on-off switch allows current to flow only when it is in the closed (on) position.
2-way Switch
(SPDT)
SPDT switch symbol SPDT = Single Pole, Double Throw.
A 2-way changeover switch directs the flow of current to one of two routes according to its position. Some SPDT switches have a central off position and are described as ‘on-off-on’.
Dual On-Off Switch
(DPST)
DPST switch symbol DPST = Double Pole, Single Throw.
A dual on-off switch which is often used to switch mains electricity because it can isolate both the live and neutral connections.
Reversing Switch
(DPDT)
DPDT switch symbol DPDT = Double Pole, Double Throw.
This switch can be wired up as a reversing switch for a motor. Some DPDT switches have a central off position.
Relay relay symbol An electrically operated switch, for example a 9V battery circuit connected to the coil can switch a 230V AC mains circuit.
NO = Normally Open, COM = Common, NC = Normally  Closed.

Resistors

 Component   Circuit Symbol  Function of Component
Resistor resistor symbol A resistor restricts the flow of current, for example to limit the current passing through an LED. A resistor is used with a capacitor in a timing circuit.
Some publications still use the old resistor symbol:  old zig-zag resistor symbol
Variable Resistor
(Rheostat)
rheostat symbol This type of variable resistor with 2 contacts (a rheostat) is usually used to control current. Examples include: adjusting lamp brightness, adjusting motor speed, and adjusting the rate of flow of charge into a capacitor in a timing circuit.
Variable Resistor
(Potentiometer)
potentiometer symbol This type of variable resistor with 3 contacts (a potentiometer) is usually used to control voltage. It can be used like this as a transducer converting position (angle of the control spindle) to an electrical signal.
Variable Resistor
(Preset)
preset symbol This type of variable resistor (a preset) is operated with a small screwdriver or similar tool. It is designed to be set when the circuit is made and then left without further adjustment. Presets are cheaper than normal variable resistors so they are often used in projects to reduce the cost.

Capacitors

 Component   Circuit Symbol  Function of Component
Capacitor capacitor symbol A capacitor stores electric charge. A capacitor is used with a resistor in a timing circuit. It can also be used as a filter, to block DC signals but pass AC signals.
Capacitor, polarised polarised capacitor symbol A capacitor stores electric charge. This type must be connected the correct way round. A capacitor is used with a resistor in a timing circuit. It can also be used as a filter, to block DC signals but pass AC signals.
Variable Capacitor variable capacitor symbol A variable capacitor is used in a radio tuner.
Trimmer Capacitor trimmer capacitor symbol This type of variable capacitor (a trimmer) is operated with a small screwdriver or similar tool. It is designed to be set when the circuit is made and then left without further adjustment.

Diodes

 Component   Circuit Symbol  Function of Component
Diode diode symbol A device which only allows current to flow in one direction.
LED
Light Emitting Diode
LED symbol A transducer which converts electrical energy to light.
Zener Diode zener diode symbol A special diode which is used to maintain a fixed voltage across its terminals.
Photodiode photodiode symbol A light-sensitive diode.

Transistors

 Component   Circuit Symbol  Function of Component
Transistor NPN NPN transistor symbol A transistor amplifies current. It can be used with other components to make an amplifier or switching circuit.
Transistor PNP PNP transistor symbol A transistor amplifies current. It can be used with other components to make an amplifier or switching circuit.
Phototransistor Phototransistor symbol A light-sensitive transistor.

Audio and Radio Devices

 Component   Circuit Symbol  Function of Component
Microphone microphone symbol A transducer which converts sound to electrical energy.
Earphone earphone symbol A transducer which converts electrical energy to sound.
Loudspeaker loudspeaker symbol A transducer which converts electrical energy to sound.
Piezo Transducer piezo transducer symbol A transducer which converts electrical energy to sound.
Amplifier
(general symbol)
amplifier symbol An amplifier circuit with one input. Really it is a block diagram symbol because it represents a circuit rather than just one component.
Aerial
(Antenna)
aerial symbol A device which is designed to receive or transmit radio signals. It is also known as an antenna.

Meters and Oscilloscope

 Component   Circuit Symbol  Function of Component
Voltmeter voltmeter symbol A voltmeter is used to measure voltage.
The proper name for voltage is ‘potential difference’, but most people prefer to say voltage!
Ammeter ammeter symbol An ammeter is used to measure current.
Galvanometer galvanometer symbol A galvanometer is a very sensitive meter which is used to measure tiny currents, usually 1mA or less.
Ohmmeter ohmmeter symbol An ohmmeter is used to measure resistance. Most multimeters have an ohmmeter setting.
Oscilloscope oscilloscope symbol An oscilloscope is used to display the shape of electrical signals and it can be used to measure their voltage and time period.

Sensors (input devices)

 Component   Circuit Symbol  Function of Component
LDR LDR symbol A transducer which converts brightness (light) to resistance (an electrical property).
LDR = Light Dependent Resistor
Thermistor thermistor symbol A transducer which converts temperature (heat) to resistance (an electrical property).

Logic Gates

Logic gates process signals which represent true (1, high, +Vs, on) or false (0, low, 0V, off).
For more information please see the Logic Gates page.
There are two sets of symbols: traditional and IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission).

Gate Type Traditional Symbol IEC Symbol Function of Gate
NOT NOT gate traditional symbol NOT gate IEC symbol A NOT gate can only have one input. The ‘o’ on the output means ‘not’. The output of a NOT gate is the inverse (opposite) of its input, so the output is true when the input is false. A NOT gate is also called an inverter.
AND AND gate traditional symbol AND gate IEC symbol An AND gate can have two or more inputs. The output of an AND gate is true when all its inputs are true.
NAND NAND gate traditional symbol NAND gate IEC symbol A NAND gate can have two or more inputs. The ‘o’ on the output means ‘not’ showing that it is a Not AND gate. The output of a NAND gate is true unless all its inputs are true.
OR OR gate traditional symbol OR gate IEC symbol An OR gate can have two or more inputs. The output of an OR gate is true when at least one of its inputs is true.
NOR NOR gate traditional symbol NOR gate IEC symbol A NOR gate can have two or more inputs. The ‘o’ on the output means ‘not’ showing that it is a Not OR gate. The output of a NOR gate is true when none of its inputs are true.
EX-OR EX-OR gate traditional symbol EX-OR gate IEC symbol An EX-OR gate can only have two inputs. The output of an EX-OR gate is true when its inputs are different (one true, one false).
EX-NOR EX-NOR gate traditional symbol EX-NOR gate IEC symbol An EX-NOR gate can only have two inputs. The ‘o’ on the output means ‘not’ showing that it is a Not EX-OR gate. The output of an EX-NOR gate is true when its inputs are the same (both true or both false).

Schimbare parolei a unui user in windows -Hack user password in Windows

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1.Pornim calculatorul in modul Safe mode with Comand Promt ( in timpul pornirii calculatorului tinem apasat pe tasta F8 pana ne va afisa pe ecaran o lista si vom alege modul Safe mode with comand Promt)

2.vom scrie urmatoarea comanda C:\Documents and Settings\1.(numele userului)>net user 2.(numele userului)

3.Vom inlocui parantezele 1. si respectiv 2. cu numele userului

4. Apoi ne va fi afistat\Type a password for user\ – si vom introduce o noua parola sau vom lasa gol  pentru  o parola nula(fara parola) apoi apasam tasta Enter

5. \Retype the password to confirm\:    Vom intruduce din nou parola setata la pasul 4. sau  nu vom scrie nimic daca ne hotaram ca parola sa fie nula (fara parola) apasam Enter

6.\The command completed successfully\ Vom fi anuntati ca operatia a fost complet indeplinita.

Cum parolam arhivele WinRar – Choosing a password for WinRar archives

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In cazul in care vrei sa arhivezi un fisier , procedezi astfel:

1.dai click dreapta pe el si apoi dai Add to archive!

2.dai click pe tab-ul Advanced

3. pe urma, dai click pe Set PassWord

4.scrii o parola si ii dai OK

Comenzi de baza Linux Basic Linux Commands

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Command Example Description
cat Sends file contents to standard output. This is a way to list the contents of short files to the screen. It works well with piping.
cat .bashrc Sends the contents of the „.bashrc” file to the screen.
cd Change directory
cd /home Change the current working directory to /home. The ‘/’ indicates relative to root, and no matter what directory you are in when you execute this command, the directory will be changed to „/home”.
cd httpd Change the current working directory to httpd, relative to the current location which is „/home”. The full path of the new working directory is „/home/httpd”.
cd .. Move to the parent directory of the current directory. This command will make the current working directory „/home.
cd ~ Move to the user’s home directory which is „/home/username”. The ‘~’ indicates the users home directory.
cp Copy files
cp myfile yourfile Copy the files „myfile” to the file „yourfile” in the current working directory. This command will create the file „yourfile” if it doesn’t exist. It will normally overwrite it without warning if it exists.
cp -i myfile yourfile With the „-i” option, if the file „yourfile” exists, you will be prompted before it is overwritten.
cp -i /data/myfile . Copy the file „/data/myfile” to the current working directory and name it „myfile”. Prompt before overwriting the file.
cp -dpr srcdir destdir Copy all files from the directory „srcdir” to the directory „destdir” preserving links (-p option), file attributes (-p option), and copy recursively (-r option). With these options, a directory and all it contents can be copied to another directory.
dd dd if=/dev/hdb1 of=/backup/ Disk duplicate. The man page says this command is to „Convert and copy a file”, but although used by more advanced users, it can be a very handy command. The „if” means input file, „of” means output file.
df Show the amount of disk space used on each mounted filesystem.
less less textfile Similar to the more command, but the user can page up and down through the file. The example displays the contents of textfile.
ln Creates a symbolic link to a file.
ln -s test symlink Creates a symbolic link named symlink that points to the file test Typing „ls -i test symlink” will show the two files are different with different inodes. Typing „ls -l test symlink” will show that symlink points to the file test.
locate A fast database driven file locator.
slocate -u This command builds the slocate database. It will take several minutes to complete this command. This command must be used before searching for files, however cron runs this command periodically on most systems.
locate whereis Lists all files whose names contain the string „whereis”.
logout Logs the current user off the system.
ls List files
ls List files in the current working directory except those starting with . and only show the file name.
ls -al List all files in the current working directory in long listing format showing permissions, ownership, size, and time and date stamp
more Allows file contents or piped output to be sent to the screen one page at a time.
more /etc/profile Lists the contents of the „/etc/profile” file to the screen one page at a time.
ls -al |more Performs a directory listing of all files and pipes the output of the listing through more. If the directory listing is longer than a page, it will be listed one page at a time.
mv Move or rename files
mv -i myfile yourfile Move the file from „myfile” to „yourfile”. This effectively changes the name of „myfile” to „yourfile”.
mv -i /data/myfile . Move the file from „myfile” from the directory „/data” to the current working directory.
pwd Show the name of the current working directory
more /etc/profile Lists the contents of the „/etc/profile” file to the screen one page at a time.
shutdown Shuts the system down.
shutdown -h now Shuts the system down to halt immediately.
shutdown -r now Shuts the system down immediately and the system reboots.
whereis Show where the binary, source and manual page files are for a command
whereis ls Locates binaries and manual pages for the ls command.

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